Tilia × euchlora K. Koch

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'Tilia × euchlora' from the website Trees and Shrubs Online (treesandshrubsonline.org/articles/tilia/tilia-x-euchlora/). Accessed 2020-02-25.

Genus

Glossary

clone
Organism arising via vegetative or asexual reproduction.
dbh
Diameter (of trunk) at breast height. Breast height is defined as 4.5 feet (1.37 m) above the ground.
glabrous
Lacking hairs smooth. glabrescent Becoming hairless.
hybrid
Plant originating from the cross-fertilisation of genetically distinct individuals (e.g. two species or two subspecies).
abaxial
(especially of surface of a leaf) Lower; facing away from the axis. (Cf. adaxial.)

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Credits

New article for Trees and Shrubs Online.

Recommended citation
'Tilia × euchlora' from the website Trees and Shrubs Online (treesandshrubsonline.org/articles/tilia/tilia-x-euchlora/). Accessed 2020-02-25.

Tree to 24 m with a straight trunk and a dense tangle of drooping branches in the middle crown. Bark dark grey and smooth for 40 years, then developing shallow flat-topped vertical ridges. Twigs slender, bright green at least in shade. Buds glabrous, orange-red in winter, with three exposed scales. Leaves 5.5–8.5 × 4.5–8 cm, glossy dark green above; soon hairless except for tufts of pale brown hair under the vein-axils; marginal teeth regular, with yellow mucronate tips 0.7–1.4 mm long. Floral bracts 6–10 × 0.9–1.7 cm, glabrous; stalk 0.3–1.6 cm long. Inflorescence drooping, with 3–7 flowers. Staminodes absent. Style glabrous in its upper part. Fruit 8–10 × 5–6 mm, covered in brown hairs, sterile. (Pigott 2012).

Habitat Cultivated origin.

USDA Hardiness Zone 6

RHS Hardiness Rating H5

Taxonomic note Often listed as a cultivar Tilia ‘Euchlora’, there is now broad agreement that it should be treated as a nothospecies, T. × euchlora (e.g. Pigott 2012, Dirr 2009).

New…

*OJ BELOW, then BEAN**

‘Euchlora’ was described by Koch in 1866 from young a tree in Berlin which was believed to have come from the Crimea. It is generally assumed to have originated as a hybrid of Tilia dasystyla subsp. dasystyla with T. cordata, which does also grow in the Crimea though not usually in the same habitats (Pigott 2012). No similar trees have been found in the wild, though the commonly adopted name ‘Crimean Lime’ is very likely to be misinterpreted as an endorsement that they do. (Some European authorities place ‘Euchlora’ as a clone of the very different T. x europaea; this is a consequence of a study by J. Dolatowski in 1992, who found the chemical structure of these two presumed hybrids of T. cordata impossible to separate (Dolatowski 1992) – providing a salutary instance of the casual human observer’s capacity to spot diagnostic differences between plants where high science fails. Dolatowski’s use of ‘Euchlora’ as a cultivar name to describe what seems very likely to be a single, vegetatively propagated clone has however been adopted in this account.) Scions of the original tree were distributed by Booth’s Nursery in Hamburg; the largest recorded example is, as of 2017, a 24 m × 0.92 m dbh in the courtyard of the Klooser Sion in Diepenveen in the Netherlands (monumentaltrees.com 2018). All these trees are instantly recognisable and usually have a visible graft. ‘Laurelhurst’, distributed in the USA, may be identical (Dirr 1998); Dirr’s estimation of 1860 for this cultivar’s date of origin might suggest that this is an earlier and different hybrid, but is more likely simply to be the year by which ‘Euchlora’ was in cultivation (in Europe at least), as suggested in The Hillier Manual of Trees and Shrubs. The clone ‘Szent Istvan’ (‘Saint Stephen’) was named in Hungary around 1990 from street-trees in Budapest (Jablonski & Plietzsch 2013), but there seems no good evidence that it is distinctly different.

The leaves of ‘Euchlora’ are the glossiest of any lime, and in autumn they turn clear yellow one at lime while others are still green. In the third quarter of the 20th century the tree became popular for street planting as the trunk is perfectly straight and the glossy leaves are unfriendly to aphids, however the ugly tangle of densely-leaved branches which form in maturity make this clone a good choice for sheltering under in the rain, but an indifferent one in most other situations.

A tree in the Cambridge University Botanic Garden (1992.0547A) was raised from seed of a planted Tilia dasystyla subsp. caucasica which grew next to a T. cordata in the Tbilisi Botanic Garden, Georgia (Pigott 2012), and is assumed to be a hybrid. This had reached 11 m by 2014 (Tree Register 2018) but does not closely resemble ‘Euchlora’.

‘Euchlora’ was described by Koch in 1866 from young a tree in Berlin which was believed to have come from the Crimea. It is generally assumed to have originated as a hybrid of Tilia dasystyla subsp. dasystyla with T. cordata, which does also grow in the Crimea though not usually in the same habitats (Pigott 2012). No similar trees have been found in the wild, though the commonly adopted name ‘Crimean Lime’ is very likely to be misinterpreted as an endorsement that they do. (Some European authorities place ‘Euchlora’ as a clone of the very different T. x europaea; this is a consequence of a study by J. Dolatowski in 1992, who found the chemical structure of these two presumed hybrids of T. cordata impossible to separate (Dolatowski 1992) – providing a salutary instance of the casual human observer’s capacity to spot diagnostic differences between plants where high science fails. Dolatowski’s use of ‘Euchlora’ as a cultivar name to describe what seems very likely to be a single, vegetatively propagated clone has however been adopted in this account.) Scions of the original tree were distributed by Booth’s Nursery in Hamburg; the largest recorded example is, as of 2017, a 24 m × 0.92 m dbh in the courtyard of the Klooser Sion in Diepenveen in the Netherlands (monumentaltrees.com 2018). All these trees are instantly recognisable and usually have a visible graft. ‘Laurelhurst’, distributed in the USA, may be identical (Dirr 1998); Dirr’s estimation of 1860 for this cultivar’s date of origin might suggest that this is an earlier and different hybrid, but is more likely simply to be the year by which ‘Euchlora’ was in cultivation (in Europe at least), as suggested in The Hillier Manual of Trees and Shrubs. The clone ‘Szent Istvan’ (‘Saint Stephen’) was named in Hungary around 1990 from street-trees in Budapest (Jablonski & Plietzsch 2013), but there seems no good evidence that it is distinctly different.

The leaves of ‘Euchlora’ are the glossiest of any lime, and in autumn they turn clear yellow one at lime while others are still green. In the third quarter of the 20th century the tree became popular for street planting as the trunk is perfectly straight and the glossy leaves are unfriendly to aphids, however the ugly tangle of densely-leaved branches which form in maturity make this clone a good choice for sheltering under in the rain, but an indifferent one in most other situations.

A tree in the Cambridge University Botanic Garden (1992.0547A) was raised from seed of a planted Tilia dasystyla subsp. caucasica which grew next to a T. cordata in the Tbilisi Botanic Garden, Georgia (Pigott 2012), and is assumed to be a hybrid. This had reached 11 m by 2014 (Tree Register 2018) but does not closely resemble ‘Euchlora’.

BEAN: Of doubtful origin; introduced about 1860. In some respects this is the most beautiful of the limes on account of its bright green large leaves and pleasing form. It is remarkably free from insect pests. In the summer of 1909, when not only limes but nearly every other tree and shrub was infested with aphides and other pests, I examined specimens of this lime at intervals during the summer, and never found a single parasite on the leaves. Yet it is quite uncommon in this country. On the continent, however, its qualities are better appreciated, and it is being much planted in streets. Its brilliantly glossy, rounded, nearly glabrous leaves and pendulous branches very well distinguish it.

To the above account, taken unchanged from previous editions, it should be added that the merits of T. × euchlora are now as much appreciated in Britain as on the continent. Being largely resistant to aphis infestation it does not drip honey-dew and is therefore suitable for street-planting. Its only disadvantage as a street tree is that the lower branches tend to droop with age, and give off pendulous secondary branches. It is an undemanding tree, holding its foliage well in hot, dry summers and tolerant of smoke pollution. Its beautiful, almost yellow flowers afford excellent forage for bees.

The history of T. × euchlora remains obscure, but it was apparently first distributed by Booth’s Flottbeck Nursery near Hamburg as T. dasystyla. It is considered by some authorities to be a hybrid between that species (or T. caucasica) and T. cordata, by others as a variant of T. caucasica. The seed from which it was raised almost certainly came from the Crimea, but it is not a native of that region in the sense of having a wide distribution there.

The trees at Kew, planted in 1871-2, measure 60 × 5 ft and 60 × 8 ft (1974). Others measured recently are: Westonbirt, Glos., Willesley Drive, 62 × 5 ft (1971), and The Downs, 48 × 6 ft (1975); Tortworth, Glos., 50 × 61⁄4 ft (1973); Queens Road, Cambridge, 60 × 5 ft (1976).

cv. ‘Redmond’. – As yet scarcely known in Britain, this cultivar is said to differ from the usual form of T. × euchlora in its dense, pyramidal habit. It was selected in the USA and put into commerce there in 1927.

From the Supplement (Vol. V)

specimens: Kew, pl. 1871-2, 60 × 5 ft and 60 × 8 ft (1974); St James’s Park, London, 50 × 5 ft (1981); Syon Park, London, north of Lake, 65 × 61⁄4 ft (1982); Osterley Park, London, 60 × 71⁄2 ft and 65 × 51⁄2 ft (1982); Westonbirt, Glos., Willesley Drive, 66 × 51⁄2 ft (1980), The Downs, 48 × 6 ft (1975) and, Broad Drive, 56 × 51⁄2 ft (1982); Tortworth, Glos., 50 × 61⁄4 ft (1973) and one of two others 52 × 51⁄2 ft (1980); Abbey Park, Leicester, 55 × 51⁄4 ft and 48 × 53⁄4 ft (1985); Calderstones Park, Liverpool, 60 × 5 ft (1984).

T. ‘Redmond. – This lime is widely grown as a street tree in the USA, where it attains a height of about 50 ft. Although listed as a clone of T. × euchlora in all recent American works consulted, it has been suggested that it is in fact a cultivar of T. americana (Dendroflora, No. 19, p. 78 (1982)). Whether it is referable to T. × euchlora or not, there seems to be little doubt that ‘Redmond’ is a hybrid.


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