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A genus of a single species, and itself the sole member of the family Sargentodoxaceae. It is allied to the Lardizabalaceae, in which it is placed by some botanists, But in the Lardizabalaceae the carpels in the female flowers are few, and arranged in whorls, whereas in Sargentodoxa the carpels are numerous and spirally arranged, as in the Schisandraceae. In foliage it bears some resemblance to Sinofranchetia, but the leaflets are virtually sessile and three-veined from the base, whereas those of the Sinofranchetia are distinctly stalked and pinnately veined. Also Sinofranchetia belongs to the Lardizabalaceae and has female flowers with only three carpels.
The genus is named in honour of Professor C. S. Sargent of the Arnold Arboretum.