Salix × rubra Huds.

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Article from Bean's Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles

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'Salix × rubra' from the website Trees and Shrubs Online ( Accessed 2024-07-14.



  • ? S. helix L.


Narrowing gradually to a point.
Sharply pointed.
(pl. apices) Tip. apical At the apex.
The author(s) of a plant name. The names of these authors are stated directly after the plant name often abbreviated. For example Quercus L. (L. = Carl Linnaeus); Rhus wallichii Hook. f. (Hook. f. = Joseph Hooker filius i.e. son of William Hooker). Standard reference for the abbreviations: Brummitt & Powell (1992).
Organism arising via vegetative or asexual reproduction.
Fused together with a similar part. (Cf. adnate.)
(of a tree or shrub) Narrow in form with ascending branches held more or less parallel to the trunk.
Lacking hairs smooth. glabrescent Becoming hairless.
Grey-blue often from superficial layer of wax (bloom).
Plant originating from the cross-fertilisation of genetically distinct individuals (e.g. two species or two subspecies).
Lance-shaped; broadest in middle tapering to point.
Smooth and shiny.
midveinCentral and principal vein in a leaf.
Inversely lanceolate; broadest towards apex.
Leaf stalk.


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Article from Bean's Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles

Recommended citation
'Salix × rubra' from the website Trees and Shrubs Online ( Accessed 2024-07-14.

A hybrid between S. purpurea and S. viminalis, forming a shrub or small tree; young twigs slightly downy at first. Leaves linear-lanceolate, with long, tapered points, the base more abruptly tapered, distantly toothed except towards the base, 2 to 512 in. long, 14 to 23 in. wide, green and glabrous on both sides when mature, but grey and slightly downy beneath when young; stalk 14 to 12 in. long. Catkins produced on the naked shoots in April, 1 to 112 in. long. Stamens two, but with stalks united towards the base, or sometimes nearly to the anthers.

Native of Britain and Europe, and highly valued by basket-makers. The osiers known in the trade as ‘Mawdesley’s Long Skein’ and ‘Tulip Willow’ belong to it.

S. ‘Eugenei’. – Of fastigiate habit, the branches and twigs all ascending at a steep angle; young bark pale green or greenish yellow. Leaves on strong shoots 2 to 4 in. long, linear-oblanceolate, tapered into the petiole, acute or short-acuminate at the apex, finely serrated in the upper half, sea-green above, the underside glaucous with a yellowish midrib, soon glabrous, lateral veins in about forty pairs on the longer leaves. A male clone, with slender, pinkish catkins 34 to 1 in. long; anthers pale red (S. purpurea × S. viminalis, var. eugenei J. Fraser; S. purpurea Eugenei and S. pyramidalis Josephinae Hort. ex J. Fraser; S. pyramidalis Eugenie Hort. ex Dipp.; ? S. pyramidalis Josephinae Hort. ex K. Koch; ? S. pyramidalis Josephine Hort. ex Dipp.).

A vigorous but elegant willow, which James Fraser likened to a fine-leaved bamboo; it is also very pretty in spring, with its small but abundant catkins. It has been cultivated in Germany since the 1860s and has usually been placed under S. purpurea or S. helix (a name of uncertain application which has been used for forms of both S. purpurea and S. × rubra), but the Swedish authority Floderus saw a specimen from Messrs Hillier in the 1920s and identified it as S. purpurea × S. viminalis. Although the rendering ‘Eugenei’ is established, the correct name should probably be ‘Eugénie’ or ‘Eugeniae’, for the Empress Eugénie, wife of Napoleon III. ‘Josephine’ may have been a different clone of similar habit.

S. ‘Forbyana’. – Near to S. × rubra, but now thought by some authorities to be a triple hybrid, the third parent being S. cinerea var. oleifolia. Twigs yellowish. Leaves broader than in S. × rubra, dark green and lustrous above. A female clone with catkins as in S. purpurea; occasionally male flowers are produced in the lower scales and these show the influence of S. purpurea in having the filaments connate. ‘Forbyana’ was described by Sir James Smith in 1804 from a plant in the Crowe collection at Lakenham, received from a Mr Forby. According to Smith it was known as the ‘fine basket osier’, but introduced later to the Thames osier-beds it was found to be too coarse for fine basket-work.